This form of Indian epigrammatic poetry had a wide following, were created, memorized and transmitted by word of mouth. Author Vishnulok Bihari Srivastava opines that such subhashita sangrahas collection of verses have done a great service by preserving several rare subhashitas which would have otherwise been lost. Other anthologies of subhashita verses from unknown and known authors, estimated from early 1st millennium AD, are Jayavallabha's Vajjalagga and Chapannaya's Gahao.
Subhashita Subhashita Manjari, verse 1. On this earth, there are three jewels - water, food and subhashita. But the fool calls pieces of stone, jewel. Other illustrations of Subhashita Subhashita are:. For benevolence, tree bears fruit For benevolence, river flows with water For benevolence, cow gives milk For benevolence, a spirit is with human body. Garments are cleaned by water, the mind by truth, the soul by ahimsa, the intellect by knowledge. Pure connection may convince a lover's heart, that ampler blessings flow when we're apart, when she is here, my lady is but one, when she's away, in all things I see her alone.
There are tens of thousands of Subhashita Subhashita in Indian literature covering topics as diverse as humor, sarcasm, criticism, politics, eroticism, emotions, love, wealth, daily life, society, learning, stages of life, ethics, morals, spirituality, deities, medicine, food, festivals, prayer, riddles, science, mathematics, poetry, language, art, Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Itihasas, and other subjects. Pure connection may convince a lover's heart, that ampler blessings flow when we're apart, when she is here, my lady is but one, when she's away, in all things I see her alone.
There are tens of thousands of Subhashita in Indian literature covering topics as diverse as humor, sarcasm, criticism, politics, eroticism, emotions, love, wealth, daily life, society, learning, stages of life, ethics, morals, spirituality, deities, medicine, food, festivals, prayer, riddles, science, mathematics, poetry, language, art, Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Itihasas, and other subjects. Lokokti or lokavakya , pracinavakya are Sanskrit proverbs, in the form of short sentences that express truths or facts, but they differ from Subhashitas in not being in poetical form.
A sutra is another ancient Indian literary form. Sutras are concise wisdom or truth, but typically they too are not poetical. Unlike subhashitas and lokokti whose authors are unknown or long forgotten, sutras are attributed to sages, famous or known personalities. Sutras typically need to be read within a context to be completely understood. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Vani Prakashan. Indian Narratology.
Sterling Publishers Pvt. Dictionary Of Indology.
Pustak Mahal. Subhasita, Gnomic and Didactic Literature. Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: sasay to zorgot, Volume 5. Sahitya Akademi. Lokokti or lokavakya , pracinavakya are Sanskrit proverbs, in the form of short sentences that express truths or facts, but they differ from Subhashitas in not being in poetical form.
A sutra is another ancient Indian literary form. Sutras are concise wisdom or truth, but typically they too are not poetical. Unlike subhashitas and lokokti whose authors are unknown or long forgotten, sutras are attributed to sages, famous or known personalities. Sutras typically need to be read within a context to be completely understood. Hinduism Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma , or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between BCE and CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.
Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources , pilgrimage to sacred sites. Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition.
Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation , family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism , Shaivism and Smartism.
Subhashitavali: An Anthology Of Comic, Erotic And Other Verse
Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius , it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia. Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean , North America , other countries. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent.
According to Gavin Flood , "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I ; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta — equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu , while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia. The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people.
By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India , meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas , with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.
The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion.
In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th. Books are provided either by publishers and authors, through the Google Books Partner Program, or by Google's library partners, through the Library Project.
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It incorporates maxims, worldly wisdom and advice on political affairs in simple, elegant language, the work has been translated Little is known about its origin; the surviving text is believed to be from the 12th-century, but was composed by Narayana between to CE. The oldest manuscript found in Nepal has been dated to the 14th century, its content and style has been traced to the ancient Sanskrit treatises called the Panchatantra from much earlier; the authorship of the Hitopadesa has been contested.
Upon the discovery of the oldest known manuscript of the text in Nepal, dated to , the preparation of a critical edition, scholars accept the authority of its two concluding verses; these verses mention Narayana as the author and a king called Dhavala Chandra as the patron of the text. But as no other work by this author is known, since the ruler mentioned has not been traced in other sources, we know nothing of either of them. Dating the work is therefore problematic. There are quotations within it from 8th century works and other internal evidence may point to an East Indian origin during the Pala Empire.
Narayana says that the purpose of creating the work is to encourage proficiency in Sanskrit expression and knowledge of wise behaviour; this is done through the telling of moral stories in which birds and humans interact. Interest is maintained through the device of enclosed narratives in which a story is interrupted by an illustrative tale before resuming; the style is elaborate and there are frequent pithy verse interludes to illustrate the points made by the various speakers.
On account of these, which provide by far the greater part of the text, the work has been described as an anthology of verses from widespread sources relating to statecraft; the Hitopadesha is quite similar to the ancient Sanskrit classic, the Panchatantra, another collection of fables with morals. Both have an identical frame story, although the Hitopadesha differs by having only four divisions to the ancient text's five. In his own introductory verses, Narayana acknowledges that he is indebted to the Panchatantra and'another work'; the latter is unknown but may be the Dharmasastras or some other.
The Hitopadesha is organized with a preface section called Prastavika; the opening verse expresses reverence to the Hindu god goddess Saraswati. There are several versions of the text available, though the versions are quite similar unlike other ancient and medieval era Hindu texts wherein the versions vary significantly; the shortest version has verses.
In the version translated by Wilkins, the first book of Hitopadesha has nine fables, the second and third each have ten, while the fourth has thirteen fables. The Book 1 is introduced with the statement that wise and sincere friends may be poor or destitute, but it is they who may help one achieve successes in life. The book recommends that the good find good friends, they are like a vessel in which one deposits both joys and sorrows of life, it is not words that define a friend but their behavior and actions; the Book 2 is introduced with the statement that great friendships can be destroyed by the cruel and envious beings who envy such friendship.
The book states that misinformation creates wedge between friends, as does a focus on disagreements, rash action without due investigation and a lack of communication; the third book presents a series of fables wherein war is described as a consequence of greed, criticism of others, wicked people and their ideologies and ungrateful leader, lack of restraint, lack of preparation, poor fortifications, weak military, weak diplomacy, poor counsel. The fables in Book 4 state that it is always better to seek peace with seven types of people: the truthful, the virtuous, the just, the strong, the victorious, those with many brothers, the self-destructing worthless.
Peace can be achieved, states Hitopadesha , if one examines one's own behavior and one's own seeking as much as that of the opponent, pays attention to the counsel of one's good friends, treats the opponent with respect and understanding, in tune with the opponent's character, forms one or more of sixteen types of treaties, reciprocal assistance and cooperative ventures between the two sides thereby enabling the pursuit of truth.
The text ends with the following, By the early 20th-century, translations of the Hitopadesha into the following Indian languages were known: Eastern states of India : Bangla, Odiya Western states: Gujarati Central states: Marathi Northern states: Hindi , Urdu Southern states: Kannada , Tamil , TeluguThe text has been translated under different titles into Asian languages such as Burmese, Thai, Persian , Sinhala , as well as into Dutch , French, Greek and Russian; the Emperor Akbar commended the work of translating the Hitopadesha to his own minister, Abul Fazl , with the suggestion that the poems which interrupt the narrative should be abridged.
Fazl accordingly put the book into a familiar style and published it with explanations under the title of the Criterion of Wisdom. The Hitopadesha was a favourite among the sc. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. At the start of the Dharma Yudhha between Pandavas and Kauravas , Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause, he wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagadvad Gita.
Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his Kshatriya duty to uphold the Dharma" through "selfless action"; the Krishna—Arjuna dialogue cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of Hindu ideas about dharma, theistic bhakti , the yogic paths to moksha ; the synthesis presents four paths to spirituality — jnana , bhakti and raja yogas.
These incorporate ideas from the Vedanta philosophies. Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with differing views on the essentials. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman and Brahman as its essence, whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, Dvaita sees them as different; the setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.
The Bhagavad Gita is the best known and most famous of Hindu texts, with a unique pan-Hindu influence; the Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. The Gita in the title of the text "Bhagavad Gita" means "song". Religious leaders and scholars interpret the word "Bhagavad" in a number of ways. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the Song of God" by the theistic schools, "the Song of the Lord", "the Divine Song", "the Celestial Song" by others. In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to sage Vyasa, whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana called Veda-Vyasa.
Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. Scholars consider Vyasa to be a mythical or symbolic author, in part because Vyasa is the traditional compiler of the Vedas and the Puranas , texts dated to be from different millennia; the word Vyasa means " arranger , compiler", is a surname in India.
According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts. Swami Vivekananda , the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was unknown in the Indian history till early 8th-century when Adi Shankara made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it. Some infer, states Vivekananda, that " Shankaracharya was the author of Gita, that it was he who foisted it into the body of the Mahabharata.
According to J. The Gita, states van Buitenen, was conceived and developed by the Mahabharata authors to "bring to a climax and solution the dharmic dilemma of a war". According to Alexus McLeod, a scholar of Philosophy and Asian Studies, it is "impossible to link the Bhagavad Gita to a single author", it may be the work of many authors. This view is shared by the Indologist Arthur Basham, who states that there were three or more authors or compilers of Bhagavad Gita.
This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham. Theories on the date of the composition of the Gita vary considerably. Scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range, the latter likely; the Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition.
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier, he states that the Gita was always a part of the Mahabharata, dating the latter suffices in dating the Gita. On the basis of the estimated dates of Mahabharata as evidenced by exact quotes of it in the Buddhist literature by Asvaghosa , Upadhyaya states that the Mahabharata, therefore Gita, must have been well known by for a Buddhist to be quoting it.
This suggests a terminus ante quem of the Gita to be sometime prior to the 1st-century CE. Vedas The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.