Email: inge. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. The abattoir sector plays a crucial role in controlling foodborne hazards, so insight in the incentives that motivate abattoirs to implement control measures is of great relevance to food safety risk managers and policy makers. A total of 80 abattoirs participated, generally they seem to be aware of the most hazardous bacterial pathogens for public health and of their responsibility and potential role to control these hazards. However, significant differences were observed between animal species, company size, and countries.
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Journal of Food Safety Early View. They are relatively unconcerned about their disease and make no effort to change their behaviours, whereas their drug compliance is better than the other patient types. This is not surprising as they are convinced that the drug regimen is the answer to their disease; it also leads to a lack of commitment to lifestyle changes. The carefree group also differs from the other groups in family support. As diabetes does not impact their daily life, these patients do not involve their close family in the management of the disease and, consequently, do not need family support.
This is in contrast to the bitter and overwhelmed groups, for whom family support is more prominent.
This could explain why, in our surveyed population, greater family support was not clearly associated with a higher commitment to diet and exercise guidelines. It is also highly likely that the fear of hypoglycaemia experienced by the overwhelmed group extends beyond the patient and has an impact on their family, friends and work colleagues.
Patients who find it difficult to adhere to treatment and who experience numerous difficulties in implementing a healthy lifestyle turn to the healthcare system for support, implying greater services use. The role of the HCP is to encourage and motivate patients to take their disease management seriously. Committed patients tend to be satisfied with their relationship with their physicians, and see them as partners rather than decision-makers. Ultimately, however, treatment decisions are up to the patient, who therefore needs to receive meaningful information in a way that allows him to make his own mind up.
This approach leads to better adherence to lifestyle changes than when instructions are given in a controlling or authoritarian manner.
Les opinions, les attitudes et les préjugés
The patients also participated in a one-on-one semistructured interview, which investigated their personal backgrounds and self-management philosophies. Our present study appears to be in line with these findings in that the categories with greater difficulties in accepting and managing diabetes, such as the bitter group, tended to have poorer metabolic control. However, due to the cross-sectional design of all these studies, a cause-and-effect relationship between self-management and glycaemic control cannot be firmly established.
The survey was based not on samples randomly selected from the whole population, but on the permanent cohort of a polling agency frequently used in epidemiological studies. This has to be weighed against its main advantage of feasibility: the low cost and simplicity of the quota method facilitates the study of large samples with regular updates.
In people whose attitudes towards diabetes are variable, two factors — weight and age — appear to influence changes in their views and, in turn, their shift into another category. For this reason, it would be useful to repeat it over time to see if and how self-management in these patient categories changes. In addition, the interpretation that individuals apply to their own physical changes and the influence that will have on their self-management practices need to be further explored. Finally, a limitation inherent to such typological analyses is that they are essentially retrospective in nature and so, when the HCP first sees a patient, there is no way to know into which category the particular patient belongs.
Nevertheless, this large-scale survey provides further insights into attitudes and beliefs towards T2DM, and identifies five patient profiles that express different levels of difficulty in implementing self-management practices. Each profile is based on a number of factors — many of which are subjective — that need to be taken into account for consistent and complete diabetes care. Patients in each category require different kinds of support from their HCP to promote effective self-management and the behavioural changes that could be key in improving metabolic control.
All of the authors, except for C. Professor S. Professor P. Virally is a consultant for Novartis. Dr Sylvie Dejager is an employee of Novartis Pharma.
Social Attitudes and Public Opinion — UMass Boston OpenCourseware
The authors gratefully acknowledge the participating patients and their families, the operational support of TNS Healthcare France, and the helpful discussions with and editorial comments of Felicity Neilson. Funding : The work was supported by Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. Previous Article Increased serum retinol-binding protein-4 levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus Y. Su, J. Hong, Q. Yan, C.
Xu, W. Gu, Y. Zhang, C. Shen, Z. Chi, M. Dai, M. Xu, Y. Zhang, Q. Liu, X. Li, G. Ning, W. Journal page Archives Sommaire. Pounis, S. Tyrovolas, M. Antonopoulou, A. Stouffer 79a has found a correlation of. Several persons read the same case studies and listed the attitudes they thought were therein exhibited with the high degree of agreement indicated above.
If this work stands the test of verification, it will be highly significant. Practically all investigators, when pressed, will admit the probable discrepancy between verbal and actual behavior, especially if the verbal "attitudes" are on.
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An enormous amount of time and labor have been practically wasted as a result of this naive assumption that verbal statements are highly correlated with adjustment behavior. That there is often high correlation must be admitted but it must be scientifically quantitatively determined just what this correlation is if the resultant generalizations are to have any scientific predictive value. Symonds 45 and Bain 3 have argued that verbal " attitudes " are relatively unimportant, but it should be pointed out that for some problems the verbal response is what is desired.
However, in most cases, the assumption is that the verbal response is indicative of actual behavior, as buying, voting, church going, choosing occupations, etc. This may be so, but it must be determined, not assumed, before the study has any great value. Practically all writers explicitly or implicitly admit a distinction between " attitudes," however used, and verbal attitudes," or opinions.
Russell 41 has approached the problem of motivation by way of desire and feeling by which he seems to mean about the same as attitude , while Holt 23 has emphasized the structural nature of the " wish. The only way we. Faris 18, 19 , following Thomas 47, 48 , holds that "the attitude" is the result, largely, of crisis situations, while the " wish " is the precursor of action. Thus Bernard's attitude 5 is Faris' wish, while Holt's wish is more nearly like Semon's " engram " or Pareto's " residue.
He speaks of analytical, emotional, indifferent, dynamical, and introspective attitudes. Space precludes further theoretical discussion. The reader is referred to Section I, and especially to the bibliographic articles of K. Allport 58 , G. Allport 2 , Lundberg The whole subject of motivation is ally presented and criticized by Sorokin Practically all -investigators agree that human motivation is largely in the realm of habit, even though these habits may be merely conditioned original action-patterns. However, the native part of the integration is important only as a substrate upon which the superstructure of habitudinal attitudes or traits may be built : Dewey 15 , Bernard 5 , G.
Allport 1, 2 , Prince 38 , Hart 22 , Watson 51 , et al. The significant thing is that there is considerable stability and cultural uniformity in these adjustment responses. This leads to the attempt to measure. All measurement, and hence all exact science, depends upon relative stability and uniformity in the behavior of defined units. All units, however carefully defined, are variables.
The problem of measurement is to find sufficient stability and uniformity among reciprocal variables regarded as hypothetical identical units so that mathematical statements or generalizations of this uniformity may he made. Such generalizations constitute scientific description and explanation. Then prediction is possible. Thus, all accurate observation that does not result in generalizations of- prediction is merely preliminary to scientific explanation.
Hence, a great deal of what passes for " scientific fact" and "scientific knowledge," by this criterion would be merely hypothesis. It has proved to be a very fascinating, though difficult, mathematical problem to define the units and devise the techniques of measuring such complex variables as the types of behavior herein discussed. But it has not been insuperable. The references in Section II describe some of 'the more successful efforts. The techniques are in general the same as those long ago worked out by the biometric school and the " intelligence " testers, but some new corre-.
As indicated above, the two possible approaches are to study 1 overt behavior and 2 verbal responses. It is obvious that the latter is the easier. The questionnaire disease is ample proof. There are two intermediate types of study between overt and verbal responses.
One is to ask the subject to check from a list of specific acts those he has performed within a definite time. This is exemplified by the play studies of Lehman and of Lehman and Witty , , The other is the case study method: Shaw , Bogardus , Burgess , , Healy , , Kreuger , , Social Forces , et al.
In the second method, the verbal responses may be evaluated by the skilled interviewer, and the statements verified later by actual factual investigation. But such materials need to be treated statistically before scientific generalizations can be made, as Shaw and Bogardus 60 have shown.
Bain and Perry 34 and others have criticized life-history, case study and questionnaire methodology. The attempts to measure opinions, or verbal attitudes, range all the way from the simple summation of judgments of true and false statements to very elaborate attempts to construct a rational scale of equal steps. Thurstone has developed the latter method to its highest point in a series of brilliant papers His is really an elaboration and logical improvement on the earlier rank-order scales of F. Allport , Rice , and others. Hartshorne and May 64 constructed a scale of equal steps in terms of standard deviation on a normal curve.
The fault of this method lies in the assumption that the opinions comprise a normal distribution as K. Young 54,56 has shown. Thurstone's method, by several ingenious devices, succeeds in establishing a statistically valid scale of equal' steps. But it is very laborious and costly.
In one study 84 he had persons sort Allport's questions and states' that there should be or ! It appears fairly easy to construct a reliable test of verbal opinions but. This commonly rests upon the judgment of raters in the last analysis, and they seldom agree closely, as Kornhauser 66, 67, 68 has shown. However, Thurstone's method seems to be the best so far devised. Allport has suggested a method of validation that dispenses with raters The social distance studies of Bogardus 7, 9, 11, 60, , , Poole 36, 37 , Shideler 79 , Woolston , et al.
The extroversion-introversion tests depend upon self-rating, perhaps checked by interviews, as with Hewlett and Lester 65 , or by taking the extreme statements as judged by raters Conklin, In addition to the discussions of theory and technique of measurement by Thurstone, Rice, F. Allport, Hartshorne and May, mentioned above, one should consult the bibliographic reviews of measurement compiled by F. Allport 58 , Manson 71, 72 , May and Hartshorne 73, 74 , G. Watson 86 , and the books by May and Hartshorne 99, , Rice 76, , Lundberg 70 , Meltzer 75 , and Terman , and the very valuable theoretical discussion by Kirkpatrick 65a.
Good discussions of the shortcomings and dangers of statistical analysis are those of Cooley , , Lehman and Witty 69 , and Burgess May and Hartshorne 74 , in the best discussion of tests, both as to classification and methodology, point out that tests seldom duplicate life situations. In an attempt to approximate this some studies have been made of actual overt adjustment behavior under controlled or uncontrolled situations.
Watson 51, was one of the pioneers in this field. Voelker in an admirable study of dishonesty was another. May and Hartshorne in the studies mentioned have perhaps done the most notable work in this field. Blanchard and Paynter , Carmichael 93 , Chapin 95 , M. Jones , Lundberg , , D. Thomas et al. It is interesting to note that many of these studies are of the adjustment behavior of infants whose verbal responses are not highly developed. It is also noteworthy that many of the studies in Section VI have approached, the question of changing attitudes by observing actual behavior, e.
Verbal attitudes remain quite constant according to D.
Young , Willey and Rice , and Rice A nice theoretical explanation of this is offered by Pitkin , pp. This is perhaps the structural basis of many " personality conflicts. The materials in Sections III and VI are somewhat similar in that overt behavior tends to be the subject matter of both. Sections TV and V are also similar, both being based largely on verbal response. However, case study IV is somewhat intermediate because the verbal reports are " interpreted " more or less objectively by the investigator and also often checked by actual non-verbal behavior.
A variety of case study dealing with the group or small institution, as advocated by Cooley , and Bogardus , is illustrated by Angell , McClenahan , Lynd , Zorbaugh , and Rhyne It promises to increase in importance. Most of the life-history and case-study research, however, deals with individuals, usually maladjusted. This work is obviously more valuable for social art than for the science of sociology.
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Such generalizations as are valid are applicable only to relatively small classes of people. When inferences from such studies are made regarding the behavior of normally adjusted people, the results are likely to be quite dubious. Most of the studies in Section V are mere tabulations of verbal responses, usually likes and dislikes, true and false, or preferences, though some of them are quite elaborately treated statistically.
The fundamental work of F. Allport, Thurstone and Rice mentioned above is largely based on verbal responses, although Rice is concerned with more overt behavior in his studies of voting. One might argue that voting is really verbal whether one does it on a party ballot or on a rating scale. Yet it is one thing to study the election returns and quite another to ask people why they voted as they did or how they would vote for so and so and such and such. Political voting is much more nearly overt adjustment behavior than is " voting " on a classroom questionnaire.
While no comprehensive logical classification of the subject matter covered by the attitude studies listed below is attempted here, certain types may be pointed out. Space prohibits placing all the studies under appropriate headings even if that were logically possible. I have merely tried to indicate certain types of attitudes, traits, or interests that have been studied by several investigators. Racial and national attitudes: Arai , Lasker Young , P. Young , K. Thomas 48 , G. Johnson , Lehman and Witty Attitudes of family and children: Blanchard and Paynter 91, , L.